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I have gotten a lot of questions about specific micronutrients, macronutrients, and supplement ingredients over the years. One compound in particular has stood out to me in its plethora of health benefits. I luckily worked for a company that specialized in distributing it for awhile, and spent the bulk of my time researching it.
Today, I want to share with you what I learned: from both a summary and a more detailed standpoint.
The ingredient I am referring to is the phytocompound Cannabidiol, or as you have more than likely heard it called: CBD.
More and more research each day is discussing how beneficial this compound is to a variety of aspects within health- so what is CBD anyways?
The short- Summary of Cannabidiol? 1, 2
- Cannabidiol (CBD) is part of a family of naturally organic compounds that hold a number of health benefits
- CBD is derived from the family of Cannabis plants, but is mainly concentrated in Industrial Hemp
- CBD interacts with our entire body through the Endocannabinoid System
- The Endocannabinoid System is responsible for receptors on cells in our brain, lungs, liver, Central Nervous System, and Peripheral Nervous System. These receptors reach Cannabinoids from within our body, Endocannabinoids, and from outside our body: phytocannabinoids
- Ingesting CBD has a number of direct health benefits: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-nocicpetive.
- CBD also has the indirect health benefit of interacting with other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, and controlling their secretion levels. This helps bring the neurotransmitters back to balance.
- CBD can be taken orally, in oil, syrup, or gel pill form, or transdermally, in a cream or through a patch, for best ingestion.
- CBD is 100% not psychoactive and does not leave the user feeling drowsy or tired
The long- What are Cannabinoids? 1, 2
- Classification of compounds that activate Cannabinoid receptors found on cells throughout the body
- Two distinct types- Endocannabinoids, cannabinoids excreted from internal Endocrine System, and Phytocannabinoids, compounds originally found in natural occurring fruits and plants
- Two distinct types of Cannabinoid receptors- CB1 and CB2
- CB1- Found in different parts of brain, Central Nervous System, Liver, Kidney, Lungs
- CB2- Found in immune system, Peripheral Nervous System, and associated organs
- Cannabinoids are Neuromodulators- they affect neurotransmitter groups such as dopamine, noepinephrine, serotonin
What are the Endocannabinoids and What do they do? 1, 2
- Endocannabinoids- Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)
- Anandamide- Primarily involved in feeding behavior and motivation/pleasure. Also responsible for “runner’s high” effect after exercise.
- Found to have pain relief, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, and improvement of sleep effects
- 2-AG- Primarily involved in immune function, anti-inflammation, and inhibition of cancer cell reproduction
What are Phytocannabinoids and What do they do? 1, 2
- Found in three primary plants- Cannabis Sativa., Cannabis Indica., and Cannabis Ruderalis.
- Primary Phytocannabinoids- THC, Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannbigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocanabivarin (THCV)
- Two most important compounds- THC and CBD
- THC- Interacts with CB1 receptors and provides psychoactive effects with some therapeutic effects, suppresses glutamate and GABA release
- CBD- Interacts with ionic channels surrounding CB1 and CB2 receptors providing modulation of other neurotransmitters. This leads to effects such as: analgesic, anti-epileptic, anti-nausea, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-psychotic, and anti-ischemic
Where do I find CBD and THC? 1, 2
- Both are active compounds in Marijuana and Industrial Hemp
- Difference between Marijuana and Hemp- the ratio of THC to CBD
- In Hemp, CBD concentrations are extremely high and THC concentrations are extremely low
- Best sourcing of CBD is from 100% Organic Industrial Hemp
How is CBD anti-inflammatory? 2
- CBD inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase
- COX- These are a classification of enzymes responsible for formation of Prostanoids which are the main creators of inflammation.
- Lipoxygenase- functions to mainly metabolize Eicosanoids which are the main signaling molecule in inflammation. With this inhibited, it results in less of a nerve response. Thusly, less swelling and inflammation occurs.
- Proven to influence release of cytokines- a signaling compound that leads to inflammation
- CBD is proven to be several hundred times more potent of an anti-inflammatory than aspirin in animal studies
How is CBD an Antioxidant? 2
- CBD reduces certain cellular receptors ability to interact with large amounts of neurotransmitters causing Excitotoxicity
- Excitotoxicity- pathology where certain ionic channels get overrun by neurotransmitters which then allow excessive Calcium into the cell. This calcium influx causes cell death and can destroy larger cell structures such as DNA and membranes.
How does CBD interact with pain? 1, 2
- CBD, among other cannabinoids, have found anti-nociceptive effects
- These effects mitigate the sensation of pain. Thusly, resulting in a duller sensation to pain.
- Happens in brain and has ability to positively affect migraine pain
How Should I take CBD? 1, 2
- Cannabinoids are mainly metabolized in liver
- Orally- this is the least bio-available option but easiest for Phytocannabinoids such as CBD
- Inhalation- quickest uptake but short duration of effect
- Transdermal- long duration of effect with great bio-availability. Can be done to a centralized spot as well.
CBD Summary 1, 2
- CBD is a non-psychoactive compound responsible for a plethora of beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-nociceptive among other effects
- CBD can inhibit other neurotransmitters release allowing for a natural homeostasis, or balance, to arise
- Oral or Transdermal supplementation are the best ways to take CBD
- CBD has the ability to create positive changes through your entire body by interacting with the CB1 and CB2 Endocannabinoid System Receptors
I’ve provided my references below. If you have additional questions about CBD, feel free to leave a comment or enter your info within the “Contact” tab. There will be more micronutrient and phytocompound summaries to come as well.
Dan “The LvL Up Coach” Rich
- Baron, E. P. (2015). Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Long Strange Trip Its Been …. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 55(6), 885-916. doi:10.1111/head.12570
- Amar, M. B. (2006). Cannabinoids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential. Journal of Ethno-Pharmacology, 105, 1-25.
- Klauke, A., Racz, I., Pradier, B., Markert, A., Zimmer, A., Gertsch, J., & Zimmer, A. (2014). The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(4), 608-620. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.10.008
- Bacanlı, M., Başaran, A. A., & Başaran, N. (2015). The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 81, 160-170. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.015
- Guzmán-Gutiérrez, S. L., Bonilla-Jaime, H., Gómez-Cansino, R., & Reyes-Chilpa, R. (2015). Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sciences, 128, 24-29. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2015.02.021
- Rufino, A. T., Ribeiro, M., Sousa, C., Judas, F., Salgueiro, L., Cavaleiro, C., & Mendes, A. F. (2015). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 750, 141-150. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.01.018
- AYDIN, E., TURKEZ, H., & TASDEMIR, S. (2013). ANTICANCER AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TERPINOLENE IN RAT BRAIN CELLS. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, Ataturk University, 64(4), 415-424. doi:10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2365
- Turkez, H., Aydın, E., Geyikoglu, F., & Cetin, D. (2014). Genotoxic and oxidative damage potentials in human lymphocytes after exposure to terpinolene in vitro. Cytotechnology,67(3), 409-418. doi:10.1007/s10616-014-9698-z